Sábado, 23 de Maio de 2020

9 Signs You Have Mean World Syndrome and How to Fight It

9 Signs You Have Mean World Syndrome and How to Fight It

Janey Davies, B.A. (Hons)

https://www.learning-mind.com

May 23rd, 2020.

 
 
 
 
There’s an unwritten rule we all tend to assume. The rule is ‘the more violence a person views on TV, the more violent their tendencies are in real life’. But one person believed the reverse to be true. That in fact, the more violent the media, the more frightened we become. This is Mean World Syndrome.

What Is Mean World Syndrome?

Mean World Syndrome describes a psychological bias where a person believes the world is a more violent place because they watch a large amount of violence on TV.
Mean World Syndrome is based on the research of Hungarian Jewish journalist George Gerbner. Fascinated by the influence of violence on TV on our perceptions of society, Gerbner wondered why, if we are all now consuming larger amounts of violence on TV are the real-life crime figures dropping.

How to Spot the Signs of Mean World Syndrome?

You might think to yourself that there’s no way you would succumb to this way of thinking, but here are just some of the signs of Mean World Syndrome:
  • Do you believe that most people are just looking out for themselves?
  • Would you be afraid of walking through your neighbourhood at night?
  • Are you cautious when interacting with strangers?
  • Would you cross the road if you saw a man of ethnic minority approaching you?
  • Do you think people should go home to their native countries?
  • Are most people out to take advantage of you?
  • Would you be unhappy if a Latino or Hispanic family moved in next-door?
  • Do you avoid people of different ethnic backgrounds?
  • Do you always tend to watch the same types of programme i.e. horror, gore?

Violence and TV: What Leads Us to Develop Mean World Syndrome?

We tend to think of the TV as an innate and harmless form of entertainment. It sits in our living rooms, we turn it on to appease bored children, or it remains on in the background unnoticed. But TV has changed throughout the decades.
For instance, I’m 55 years old now, and I remember the very first time I watched The Exorcist. It frightened me for nights on end. I happened to show the film to a few friends who were twenty or so years younger than me, expecting them to have the same visceral reaction. But they just laughed.
It’s easy to see why. Films like Hostel show a woman’s eyes blowtorched in graphic detail. In contrast, Linda Blair’s turning head just looks comical.
I think we can agree that TV and films, in particular, portray violence in a much more graphic way these days. But the majority of us watch violence like this on TV and do not turn into serial killers. And this is what interested Gerbner.

See Violence, Commit Violence?

Historically, psychologists focused on whether those who had been exposed to media violence would be more likely to commit violence in real life. Gerbner believed exposure to media violence was far more complex. He suggested that consuming media violence is more likely to make us scared and fearful. But why?
Gerbner found that people with moderate to heavy TV and media viewing habits were more likely to believe they would be a victim of violence. They were also more worried about their personal security. They were less likely to go out in their own neighbourhood at night.
These responses differed greatly from people with light viewing habits. In this case, light viewers had a more rounded and generous view of society.
“Our studies have shown that growing up from infancy with this unprecedented diet of violence has three consequences, which, in combination, I call the “mean world syndrome.” What this means is that if you are growing up in a home where there is more than say three hours of television per day, for all practical purposes you live in a meaner world – and act accordingly – than your next-door neighbour who lives in the same world but watches less television.” Gerbner

So What Exactly Is Going On?

There’s a historical view of media and TV violence that we viewers are passive in our entertainment. We are like sponges, soaking up all the gratuitous violence. This old view suggests that TV and media fire information like a bullet into our minds. That TV and media can control us like automatons, feeding our minds with subliminal messages.
Gerbner saw things differently. He did believe that TV and media played a crucial role in the way we view society. But not one where we are encouraged to commit violent acts. One where we ourselves are scared and frightened by what we see.

How Mean World Syndrome Is Cultivated in Our Society

According to Gerbner, the problem lies in how this violence is portrayed on TV and in the media. It intersperses with banal content. For example, one minute, we are watching an advert for bleach or nappies, and the next, we see a news item that someone’s daughter has been abducted, raped, and dismembered.
We switch from one shocking news story to comedies, from a graphic horror film to a cute animal cartoon. And it is this constant switching between the two that normalises the violence we see. And when mass media normalises something as awful as a child abduction we don’t feel safe anymore.
We assume that this is the world we live in now. It’s that old news saying: “If it bleeds, it leads.” News channels focus on the most violent crimes, movies find new ways to shock us, even local news prefer gore and horror to cute stories about rescue puppies.

Violence Is Normal

Gerbner realised that it was the normalisation of violence, he called it ‘happy violence’ that cultivates a fearful society. In fact, there is a direct correlation between the amount of TV a person watches and their level of fear.
Mass media saturates us with graphic images, horrific stories, and frightening storylines. News channels remind us about the ‘War on Terror’, or the consequences of the coronavirus, all while glaring mugshots of offenders pierce through our collective consciousness.
It’s not surprising we are afraid to go outside our own homes. This cultivated fear shapes us into victimhood.

TV and Media Are the New Storytellers

Yet, you could say that we come across violence in fairy tales as children, or in Shakespeare’s play as teenagers. That we need to acknowledge violence as part of what’s good and bad about society. However, we are told fairy tales by a parent who provides context or comfort should we become upset. Shakespeare plays often have a moral story or ending which is discussed in class.
There is no parent or teacher advising us when we view violence portrayed in mass media. Moreover, this violence is often sensationalised, it’s delivered in a spectacular way. It’s often portrayed as humorous or sexy. As a result, we become indoctrinated with this constant flow saturation.

We Are Born into Viewing Violence

psychotic female killer
Gerbner stated that we are born into this saturation. There is no before or after viewing violence, we grow up with it, and from a very early age. In fact, children view around 8,000 murders by the age of 8 years old, and around 200,000 violent acts by the time they are 18.
All this violence adds up to a pervasive narrative we believe to be true. Each TV programme, every news story, all those films add up to a seamless and continuous dialogue. One that tells us the world is a scary, frightening, and violent place to live in.
The reality, however, is much different. According to the Justice Dept., murder rates are down 5% and violent crime is at an all-time low, having dropped 43%. Despite this, coverage of murders increased by 300%.
“Fearful people are more dependent, more easily manipulated and controlled, more susceptible to deceptively simple, strong, tough measures and hard-line measures…” Gerbner

How to Fight Mean World Syndrome?

There are lots of ways you can control how you feel about the society you inhabit.
  • Limit the amount of TV and media you view.
  • Alternate between different types of programmes, e.g. comedy and sport.
  • Remember, the majority version of violence presented by the media is a small minority of real life.
  • Use different kinds of media to access information, i.e. books, journals.
  • Get the facts from reliable sources so you don’t over-estimate the amount of violence in the world.
  • Ask yourself, who benefits from perpetuating the myth of mass fear?

Final Thoughts

It’s easy to see how we can become enveloped in Mean World Syndrome. Every day we are bombarded with the most gruesome facts and images. These present a distorted view of the world.
The problem is if we only see the world through fear-tinted glasses, solutions to our problems will be based solely around this fear. And we could end up imprisoning ourselves for no good reason.
References:
  1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. www.theatlantic.com
  3. www.apa.org

 

 
Janey Davies
 

 
 
About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 




Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
All articles are of the respective authors or publishers responsibility. 
 


 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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Discernment is recommended.
 
 

 

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publicado por achama às 18:09
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Quarta-feira, 20 de Maio de 2020

...

False Awakening in Regular and Lucid Dreams: Causes and Symptoms

Janey Davies, B.A. (Hons)

https://www.learning-mind.com

May 20th, 2020.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Have you ever been convinced that you’d woken up from sleep, but in fact, you were still dreaming? If so you might have experienced a false awakening.
A false awakening happens when the dreamer wakes up during their dream only to realise they are still dreaming and wake up later on. While the dreamer believes they are awake, they might go through the motions of turning off an alarm, getting out of bed and eating breakfast. However, they will then suddenly find themselves waking up for real, still in bed.

How Does False Awakening Happen in Regular and Lucid Dreams?

False awakenings are a mix of sleeping and waking states of consciousness. Our brains are in a kind of semi-conscious state; not quite awake but not fully asleep either. Actually, many sleep disturbances happen during this mixed brain state, including lucid dreams and sleep paralysis.
During lucid dreams, the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming. They can even influence the outcome of the dream. In sleep paralysis, the dreamer wakes, but their body is frozen as if paralysed. However, false awakenings are not the same as sleep paralysis or lucid dreaming. The dreamer might experience paralysis but only within the dream. Once they have actually woken up they can move as normal.
False awakenings occur during regular dreams and lucid dreaming. Sometimes, during a false awakening in a dream, the dreamer can become aware that something feels a little ‘off’ in the dream. They get a sense that all is not quite as it should be.
They can also occur several times within one dream. The dreamer can believe they have woken up many times while they are dreaming. They then wake up properly, only to discover that all the previous times they were still asleep. False awakenings that occur again and again within the same dream are ‘nested’ dreams.

2 Types of False Awakening

There are two types of false awakening:

Type I

Type 1 is the more common kind of false awakening. Type 1 false awakenings happen once or twice a year. Here the dreamer goes about their normal business of waking up. For instance, they might get out of bed, turn on the shower, prepare breakfast, wake their children up, etc.
During this type of awakening, the dreamer may or may not notice that their surroundings are a little strange. The environment might not be realistic to them. For instance, they might wake up somewhere other than their bedroom.
A typical type 1 false awakening occurs where the dreamer believes he or she has overslept and is late for work. They ‘wake up’ in their dream but in reality, are still asleep in bed. Only when they wake up properly do they understand what has happened. It is a surprise to the dreamer but not overly worrying.

Type 2

Type 2 is a rarer kind of false awakening. Type 2 false awakenings can occur several times in one night. Here the dreamer is aware of a sense of foreboding. They know something is wrong but can’t put their finger on it.
In these types of false awakenings, the dreamer wakes to an atmosphere of tension or stress. They are immediately apprehensive upon waking. They feel suspicious and uncomfortable. The environment feels weird although the dreamer can’t quite account for what’s wrong. They just know something isn’t right.

Causes of False Awakening in Dreams

False awakenings in dreams are associated with broken or disturbed sleep patterns.
For example:
  • Insomnia
  • Snoring
  • Frequent getting up to use the toilet
  • Teeth grinding
  • Daytime tiredness
  • Environmental noises
  • Restless leg syndrome
False awakening dreams are linked to mixed brain states and/or underlying anxiety. Mixed brain states are associated more with Type 1 awakenings, whereas anxiety is linked to Type 2 awakenings.

Mixed brain states

There is still much we don’t know about the brain and various levels of consciousness. In particular, the possibility that our brains can experience several states of consciousness at once.
So, in effect, we can be asleep and dreaming but also awake at the same time. It is during this mixed brain state that we become confused. Are we awake or still asleep? If our brain is in that grey area between two states of consciousness, it’s not surprising that we’re not sure whether we’re dreaming or have woken up.
Most people will experience false awakening dreams once or twice a year. In these cases, a specific event will trigger the awakening. For example, you might have an important job interview the next day and you dream that you’ve overslept and missed it.

Anxiety or worry

On the other hand, some people experience recurring and frequent false awakenings in their dreams. This is linked to underlying anxiety or worry in real-life that is not being addressed.
These awakenings are associated with the Type 2 dreams where you feel uneasy upon waking. You awake to an over-riding sense of foreboding. Experts believe that your subconscious is trying to tell you that you need to face up to the problem or worry in your life. In a sense, this is your subconscious giving you a wake-up call. Your brain is literally waking you up twice.

False Awakening in Lucid Dreams

 
lucid dreams
 
False awakenings occur in lucid dreaming. The lucid dreamer is aware of being in a dream. As such, to some extent, they can control what happens and what they do.
There are two separate elements of control within lucid dreaming;
  1. Manipulation of the environment or the characters within it
  2. Control over one’s own actions within the dream
False awakenings appear to be linked to the lucid dreamer exerting self-control, rather than manipulating their dream environment. In fact, lucid dreamers are more likely to experience false awakenings.

Symptoms of False Awakening in Dreams

In Type 1 and Type 2 false awakening dreams, there are clues that can signal you are not awake. These are usually a single thing that appears out of place. For example, a person you wouldn’t expect to see, or an object in your house that shouldn’t be there.
You will usually have a sense that something is not quite right. But there are ways you can test yourself. Look at your environment carefully; are the windows and doors straight and the right size? Does the clock face have the right numbers on it?
It is important to recognise what is out of place. This is for two reasons:
  • It is a clue that makes you aware that you are still dreaming.
  • It can lead to the underlying problem that’s worrying you.
Dream analyst Kari Hohn reminds us:
“We dream about what we’re not facing during the day. If we block something out of consciousness, it can appear in our dreams.”
Dreaming allows us to process the thoughts and experiences of the day. Even subconscious ones.

Is There a Treatment for False Awakenings?

Generally speaking, there is no treatment for this kind of sleep disorder. However, if you are suffering from frequent and upsetting false awakenings that are affecting you, it could be a sign of an underlying worry or general anxiety.
In this case, talking therapy might be sufficient to get to the root of your anxiety. Once the worry or stress has been dealt with, your sleep should return to normal. Only if the awakenings are causing you serious distress will you be offered some kind of sleep or dream therapy. Medication may be used to control the symptoms of disturbed sleep.

How to Wake Up from a False Awakening?

symbols in dreams
Those that are experienced in lucid dreaming will already know how to manipulate the environment in their dreams. However, for anyone who does not experience lucid dreaming, it can be more difficult.
For all the regular dreamers who are not expert lucid dreamers, there are ways to wake up properly from a dream.
  • Test your surroundings by focusing on one thing in your dream.
  • Ask yourself – does this seem real to me?
  • Try controlling what you’re doing, e.g. running or walking.
  • Pinch yourself in the dream; does it hurt?
  • Tell yourself to wake up right now.
  • Move your fingers or toes and continue from there.

How to Turn False Awakenings into Lucid Dreams

Establishing control allows us to feel better about ourselves and the situation we’re in. Turning false awakenings into lucid dreaming is a good way of getting back control. Try the following if you believe you are experiencing a false awakening:
  • Do the same thing every day upon waking up. This is your baseline of knowing whether you are still dreaming or not. For instance, always put your slippers on the left foot then right. Then, if this doesn’t happen, you’ll know you are still asleep.
  • Find a mirror and look at your reflection. In one study, a woman experienced multiple false awakenings only realised she was still asleep because she happened to glance at her reflection and there was nothing there.
  • Look at the clock face and see if you can tell the time. When we dream, our brains shut down the area in our brain responsible for language and numbers. As a result, we find it hard to read clocks and watches when we are dreaming.

Is False Awakening Dangerous?

It is important to remember that false awakenings, in themselves, are not harmful. However, recurrent and Type 2 awakenings do suggest that all is not well with the dreamer. It’s possible that some stress or worry is not being addressed. In this case, therapy to discover the underlying anxiety is the best way forward.
References:
  1. www.verywellhealth.com
  2. www.psychologytoday.com
  3. www.refinery29.com
*Names changed.
 
Janey Davies
 

 
 
About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 




Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
All articles are of the respective authors or publishers responsibility. 
 


 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 
 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 14:09
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Segunda-feira, 18 de Maio de 2020

‘Is My Child a Psychopath?’ 5 Signs to Watch Out For

‘Is My Child a Psychopath?’ 

5 Signs to Watch Out For

Janey Davies, B.A. (Hons)

https://www.learning-mind.com

May 18th, 2020.

is my child a psychopath
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Are you worried about your child? Have you noticed a disturbing mean streak in them? Are they not fazed by punishment? Have you ever been so frightened of your child’s behaviour that you start to ask yourself, ‘Is my child a psychopath?’

‘Is My Child a Psychopath?’ – How to Recognize the Signs

Adult psychopaths fascinate us, but they must have come from somewhere. So, would you be able to recognise psychopathic traits in your child?
Historically, studies into child psychopathy have been carried out retrospectively. In other words, we take the adult psychopath and look into his or her childhood. Adult psychopaths can share several traits common in childhood. The MacDonald Triad suggested three such significant traits:
  1. Bed-wetting
  2. Cruelty to animals
  3. Fire-setting
However, subsequent research has criticised the MacDonald Triad. Instead, studies have shown that traits such as ‘callous disregard’ are more common in children who go onto exhibit psychopathy as adults.
“I remember when I bit my mom really hard, and she was bleeding and crying. I remember feeling so happy, so overjoyed—completely fulfilled and satisfied.” Carl*

Adult Psychopathic Traits vs Child Psychopathy

Speaking of adults, adult psychopathic traits are well-documented. We know that psychopaths tend to exhibit certain behaviours.

Adult Psychopathic Traits

The Mayo Clinic defines psychopathy as:
“A mental condition in which a person consistently shows no regard for right and wrong and ignores the rights and feelings of others.”
Psychopaths make up about 1% of the population. Around 75% are male and 25% female.
Psychopaths share many characteristics. In fact, the Hare Checklist is a specific list of psychopathic traits. The most common adult psychopathic traits are:
  • Lying and manipulation
  • Lack of morals
  • No empathy
  • Superficial charm
  • Narcissism
  • Superiority complex
  • Gaslighting
  • Lack of conscience
So do children share these same traits as their adult counterparts?
“I wanted the whole world to myself. So I made a whole entire book about how to hurt people. I want to kill all of you.” Samantha*

Child Psychopathy

Well, society does not label children as psychopaths. Instead, children with ‘dark traits’ are described as ‘callous and unemotional’. Experts use this callous-unemotional behaviour (CU behaviour) to form a diagnosis.

Examples of Callous Unemotional Behaviour in Children:

Studies into antisocial behaviour in children have captured several common traits in children as young as 2 years old:
  1. A lack of guilt after misbehaving
  2. No difference in behaviour after punishment
  3. Constant lying
  4. Sneaky behaviour designed to mislead you
  5. Selfish and aggressive behaviour when they don’t get what they want
Further research has led to the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI), which is similar to the Hare Checklist. Adolescents answer a series of questions which are then scored to measure the following personality traits:
  • Sense of grandiosity
  • Lying
  • Manipulation
  • Callous nature
  • No remorse
  • Insincere charm
  • Unemotionality
  • Thrill-seeking
  • Impulsiveness
  • Irresponsible nature
Children and adolescents that exhibit many of the above CU traits are more likely to commit anti-social behaviour as young adults and end up in prison.
“Don’t let me hurt you, Mom.” Kevin*

Is a Child Psychopath a Product of Nature or Nurture?

There are some experts that believe child psychopaths are born this way. However, others think it is more likely to be a mixture of genes and environment.
Philosopher John Locke first suggested that children are ‘blank slates‘, filled with experiences from their parents and interactions with their environment. But children are more than that. They come with their own readymade personality. This core personality then interacts with family, friends, and society. The environment shapes this core personality into the adults we become.
So what can cause a child to become a psychopath?

What Are the Causes of Child Psychopathy?

Early childhood abuse

One of the strongest indications of child psychopathy is early abuse in childhood. In fact, neglected, abused, or children that grew up in dysfunctional environments are more likely to show psychopathic tendencies later on.

Attachment issues

Separation from a parent or primary caregiver can have devastating effects on a child. We know that it is essential to form an attachment with our parents. However, the parent in question could suffer from addiction or mental health problems.
In fact, studies show that young female psychopaths are likely to have come from dysfunctional home lives.

Victimisation

On the other hand, young male psychopaths are more likely to have been victimised at an early age. The perpetrator carrying out the victimisation can be a parent or the child’s peers. This reasoning confirms what we already know, in that victims of bullying will often become bullies themselves.

Different brain structure

Other studies propose that children who show CU behaviours have differences in their brain structure. This supports the theory that suggests adult psychopaths have different brains to the rest of us.
Children with CU traits have less grey matter in the limbic system. This system is responsible for processing emotions. They also have an underactive amygdala. Someone with an undersized amygdala has problems recognising emotions in others. Therefore, they lack empathy.
“Kill John and Mommy with them (knives). And Daddy.” Beth*

5 Signs Your Child Is a Psychopath

So we can understand some of the causes behind child psychopathy. But if you ask yourself, ‘Is my child a psychopath?’, what signs should you be looking out for?

1. Superficial charm

These children can appear charming but they are mimicking what they’ve seen other people do. The only reason they appear to be charming is to get what they want.
One way you can identify superficial charm in children is to watch their reactions when someone else is upset or distressed. In normal circumstances, seeing someone upset will be in itself upsetting to a child. They will try and comfort whoever is upset. If your child is a psychopath, they won’t care and it certainly won’t upset them.

2. Lack of guilt or remorse

Children with CU behaviour use their charm to manipulate others. If they want something, they will do anything in their power to get it. If this happens to hurt another person in the process, so be it. They don’t understand that their actions have consequences. All they know is that the world is there for them. Therefore, they can do whatever they want.
So look out for selfishness in your child, one that is not prepared to share with others and one that acts aggressively if their needs are not met.

3. Prone to aggressive outbursts

Most parents are used to toddler tantrums, but the aggressive outbursts from child psychopaths are much more than tantrums. If you feel frightened of your own child’s capabilities, it’s a sign of psychopathy.
One other thing to point out is that these outbursts will come from nowhere. For instance, one minute, everything is fine, the next, your child is threatening you with a knife if you don’t get them a new puppy. The outburst is a massive overreaction to the situation.

4. Immune to punishment

Brain scans have shown that reward systems in callous children are overactive, but they are unable to recognise the usual signs of punishment. This leads them to focus doggedly on their own pleasure without being able to stop, even if it means hurting someone. Moreover, they know that if they get caught, they’ll be reprimanded.
We usually temper our behaviour to match the consequences of our actions. If your child is a psychopath, they know the consequences – they just don’t care.

5. No empathy for others

Does your child seem flat behind the eyes? Do you look at them and wonder if they are capable of loving you? It’s not that they don’t know what love is, they just don’t experience it.
Child experts believe that inactivity in the amygdala is to blame. More interestingly, we know that babies, when given the choice, would rather look at human faces than something like a red ball. Studies reveal that children who exhibit CU behaviour prefer the red ball to a face.
“I choked my little brother.” Samantha*

Can a Child Psychopath Be Cured?

So can child psychopaths ever be cured? Probably not. But their behaviour can be modified.
Research has shown that children with CU behaviour do not respond to punishment. However, because their reward centre in the brain is overactive, they do respond to incentives. This is cognitive morality. So while the child may never recognise emotions or understand empathy, they do have a system that rewards them for good behaviour.

Final Thoughts

Nature or nurture, brain abnormalities, or neglect in childhood. Whatever the reason, seeing callous disregard in children is particularly horrifying. But it doesn’t have to mean a life sentence. So if you suspect that your child is a psychopath, you should know that with proper therapy, even the coldest of children can live a relatively normal life.
References:
  1. www.psychologytoday.com
  2. www.theatlantic.com
  3. www.telegraph.co.uk
  4. nypost.com
*Names changed.
 
Janey Davies
 

 
 
About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 




Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
All articles are of the respective authors or publishers responsibility. 
 


 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 
 

 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

  geoglobe1
 
 
publicado por achama às 12:02
link | comentar | favorito
Quinta-feira, 14 de Maio de 2020

What Do Dreams about Tornadoes Mean? 15 Interpretations

What Do Dreams about Tornadoes Mean? 15 Interpretations

Janey Davies, B.A. (Hons)

https://www.learning-mind.com

May 14th, 2020.

 
 
what do dreams about tornadoes mean
 
 
 
 
Tornadoes are one of nature’s most frightening and dramatic phenomena. They twist and turn and cause horrendous devastation wherever they go. So what exactly do dreams about tornadoes mean?

What Do Dreams about Tornadoes Mean?

As with all dream interpretation, the context of the dream is as important as the details. However, you can make general inferences with certain dreams. For example, tornado dreams are indicative of confused thinking, emotional problems, or anxiety.
This is because tornadoes are typically made up of air or water. The air in a dream relates to our thoughts whereas water is linked to emotions. The chaotic nature of a tornado in a dream indicates change.
However, tornado dreams can also signal a warning to you from your subconscious. Sometimes we are so caught up in life we don’t realise that our mental health is suffering. Recurring tornado dreams should, therefore, be a warning to you from your psyche. Your subconscious is prodding you in your dreams to help to recognise that you need to seek help.
So the main interpretation we can take from dreams about tornadoes is that they relate in some way to your mental health. You might have been worrying about a situation and feel hopeless and unable to tackle it.
In these cases, your dream is asking you to stop worrying and start being more positive. It is telling you that the tornado is not the thing to be scared of. The tornado represents your escalating worries and uncontrolled thoughts. So you shouldn’t be afraid of the actual tornado. Instead, see it as a warning that relates to how you are handling a particular situation.

3 General Interpretations of Tornado Dreams

Before I go into the finer details of dreams about tornadoes, let’s examine these three general interpretations:

Confused thinking

Tornadoes are whirling funnels of air with no clear direction. They sweep across the landscape obliterating everything in their sight. The air in dreams symbolises our thoughts. In this case, the tornado indicates that our thoughts are in turmoil. We may be struggling with a problem that we can’t find a solution to. Or we could be going around and around in circles with no result in sight. In this case, the tornado is indicating a state of confusion to a current situation.
Do you feel caught up in the drama of an escalating situation? Are you running out of ideas to resolve a problem? Are you dealing with a problem that is all-consuming? Do you run through possible options and then dismiss all of them? Or are you obsessing about one particular matter? Do thoughts about this situation keep spinning around in your mind?
Unfortunately, until this problem or situation is resolved, the tornado dreams will persist.

Emotional problems

Tornadoes are uncontrollable bursts of energy. Therefore, tornado dreams can signify emotional turmoil. We cannot help what we feel and this type of dream indicates our sense of helplessness. Perhaps you are dealing with an emotionally-charged situation and you feel powerless to do anything about it. Maybe a relationship is ending and you don’t want it to but there’s nothing you can do.
Tornadoes symbolise drastic change and upheaval. Your mind has interpreted this upheaval in your real life and created a tornado in your dreams. You feel uncertain about your future, uncertain about how you’ll cope after this drastic change.
However, it is important to remember that we get warnings with tornadoes in real life. We can see them coming from afar. So although you might feel helpless at the time because you are forewarned, there are things you can do to lessen the devastation they cause.

Anxiety

Tornadoes spin out of control and this is how a lot of us describe anxiety; that loss of control spinning away from us. So a tornado dream can signify our worry and lack of control in our real life. Do you feel as if your emotions are running away from you? Is this making your anxiety worse? Maybe there is an event coming up and it’s making you anxious. Tornadoes indicate a threat that cannot be controlled. Is this how you feel about the future?
Dreams about tornadoes also indicate a more generalised form of anxiety. We can see these tornadoes from far away, but we know they are coming for us. So a tornado dream can symbolise both a real-life threat and a general feeling of anxiousness.

15 Scenarios and Interpretations of Dreams about Tornadoes

So those are the three general interpretations of dreams about tornadoes. Now let’s look at tornado dreams in more detail:

Witnessing a tornado

  1. If you saw a tornado from a safe distance away, this symbolises a worry in the future that you feel you have no control over. You feel under-prepared to deal with what’s coming. However, if the tornado was right before your eyes, it indicates your growing unease about a certain person or situation in your life. You are afraid that this real-life situation can unbalance you emotionally.

Caught in a tornado

  1. Being caught up in a tornado is particularly frightening. It indicates your emotions are out of control. You have extreme highs and lows in terms of your moods. You are prone to violent outbursts and don’t care anymore whether your loved ones are hurt by your cruel words. You feel a strong need to let others know what you’re going through.

Chased by a tornado

  1. A dream about tornadoes chasing you indicates your fear about a person. The closer the tornado gets to you, the bigger the threat this person presents. This type of dream indicates a need for calm thinking. It’s easy to panic in these situations, but you need to keep a level head when dealing with this person. The chaotic nature of tornadoes symbolises the unknown path this person might take.

Devastation by a tornado

 
dream about tornado destruction meaning
  1. As with dreams about death and dying, the devastation left in the wake of a tornado is indicative of change and a new start. The old and rotten parts of your past have been obliterated making way for a fresh new beginning. This is a dream about your possible future and what you have to do to enable it. Sweep out all the deadwood in your life and start anew. You have the power to make these necessary changes.

Lots of tornadoes

  1. If there are lots of tornadoes in our dream, you should look at the size of them in order to interpret the dream. For instance, lots of small skinny tornadoes indicate little niggly problems you can easily resolve.
However, the bigger the tornadoes in your dreams, the larger the problems you’re likely to face in real life. If they all merge to create a huge storm, this symbolises a huge weight on your mind that’s growing larger by the day.

There’s a tornado warning

  1. Recurrent dreams about tornadoes indicate that you are a worrier in real-life. You may suffer from generalised anxiety and tend to think the worst is going to happen. However, if this doesn’t describe you, then the dream shows you are prepared for any up and coming situation. This type of dream indicates that there is a situation that is causing you anxiety, but you have the tools to cope with it.

Escaped a tornado

  1. Are you an outspoken person that doesn’t suffer fools gladly? Escaping from the path of a tornado indicates that you are not afraid of calling out or confronting people that upset or annoy you. You are known to tell things as they are and people respect your forthright views.
This type of dream also indicates success in dealing with unscrupulous people. You might have felt out of your depth but you succeeded in dealing with these people who wanted to undermine you.

Trapped in a car during a tornado

  1. Are you trapped in a car in the path of an oncoming tornado and you can’t move? This suggests a lack of conviction regarding a situation in your life. You feel underprepared for what’s coming next. Things seem like they are spiralling out of control and you don’t know which way to turn. You want to act, but you feel paralysed. This sense of helplessness to make a decision is only worsening your anxiety.

Picked up and carried away by the tornado

  1. This dream indicates that whatever problem or situation you’re dealing with, it is getting out of hand. Your thoughts are running amok and you need to calm down and think reasonably about a situation. You may be engaging in catastrophic thinking or black and white thinking where you are imagining all the worst possible scenarios. Don’t let your imagination take hold of you.
On the other hand, if you felt quite calm by being carried away in the tornado, then this reflects your desire to get away from your current situation. Maybe you feel like you want a break from your present life. You could do with some time out for yourself.

Saving someone from the tornado

  1. This all depends on who you were trying to save and whether you managed to save them. If it was a member of your own family, then this indicates a worry about their health or a situation they are currently experiencing. If you didn’t manage to save the person, this refers to your own feelings of helplessness about the situation. You want to stop whatever is happening to them, but you can’t.

Watching the effects of the tornado on other people

  1. A dream where you stood by and watched the tornado causing devastation on others signifies other people’s feelings towards you. These people don’t want to confront you for fear of upsetting you. They could also be afraid of your reaction to them. In both cases, they are hiding their feelings for fear that you’ll not be understanding.

You survived a tornado

  1. Surviving a tornado is a very good sign from your subconscious. You may well have experienced a traumatic event in your life, but your psyche is telling you that you have overcome it. You have managed to come out the other end relatively unscathed. You are a strong individual that can literally weather any storm. Now, that the devastation is over and the clouds have gone it’s time to focus on yourself. This is your time to shine.

You didn’t survive a tornado

  1. Usually, we don’t dream about not surviving a catastrophic event. We wake up before the end comes. Typically, dreaming about dying or death is suggestive of a new start. However, in this case, it indicates poor health on the part of the dreamer. Are you neglecting your health because you have other more pressing responsibilities? You should understand that you can’t look after anyone if you yourself are sick.

You hid from a tornado

  1. Hiding from a tornado is not an indication of weakness or fear, in fact, it signifies your calm nature to stress and unpredictability. You are the voice of reason when things get messy. You can keep people from panicking in stressful situations. People look to you for guidance and advice on what to do when there is panic or anxiety. You remind people that there’s nothing to be frightened about.

You are chasing tornadoes

  1. Are you one of those daredevils we see in movies that chase tornadoes? You might assume that this kind of dream relates to risk-taking, but you’d be wrong. It signifies someone in your life trying to control you.
Do you feel as if you cannot be yourself or that someone disapproves of how you live your life? Chasing tornadoes in your dream indicates the impossible task of catching up with the storm. And this is how you feel around a certain person. Remember, you can’t please all of the people all of the time. You can only be yourself.
 

Final thoughts

It is important to remember that tornadoes represent your innermost feelings and emotions. And unless the tornado in your dream came out of nowhere, we usually get a warning before its arrival. We hear alarms and sirens which warn us to take cover.
So consider the tornado dream as a warning to keep yourself safe. To look after your mental wellbeing. Once you view your dreams about tornadoes in this way, you will be better equipped to deal with any destructive forces heading your way.
References:
  1. www.thecut.com
  2. Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, 1899
Janey Davies
 

 
 
About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 




Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

 
All articles are of the respective authors or publishers responsibility. 
 


 
No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


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publicado por achama às 13:48
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Segunda-feira, 4 de Maio de 2020

Just-World Hypothesis and Examples of How It Fools You.

 

Just-World Hypothesis and Examples of How It Fools You.

Janey Davies, B.A. (Hons)

https://www.learning-mind.com

May 4th, 2020.

 
 
 

 
Do you think that life is fair and that generally speaking, people get what they deserve? If so, you may have fallen victim to the Just-World Hypothesis.

What Is the Just-World Hypothesis?

The just-world hypothesis is a tendency to believe that the world is a just place and that we all end up with what we deserve. It theorises that because we think the world is a just place, we look for reasons to explain away injustice.
This effort on our part to rationalise injustice in this way often leads to us blaming the victims of injustice. We do this even when the victim could not have any control over their own misfortune. This automatic tendency of ours to blame the victim makes us question the victim’s behaviour, instead of looking at the circumstances befalling them.
It is easy to see how some people could fall into this trap of a mental bias. It fits in with our memories of childhood. As children, we were always told ‘work hard and you’ll achieve successes’, ‘eat all your greens and you’ll grow up big and strong’. We believe our fate to be in our own hands. But not only that, but we also believe that good things come to those who are good. Consequently, bad things happen to bad people. It fits in nicely with our narrative of the world.
So we automatically assume that good people have earned their success. They deserve their good luck. We label good people with other good attributes such as hard-working, honest, and intelligent. On the other hand, bad people will get what they deserve. After all, you get out of life what you put in. We label these bad people as lazy, stupid, and dishonest.

Examples of Just-World Hypothesis

We blame women for their own sexual assaults because of what they were wearing at the time of the attack, where they were at the time of the attack, or their previous sexual behaviour is called into question.
We look at homeless people and think to ourselves ‘that would never happen to me’, they must have done something to get to this situation. Not realising that the majority of us are just 3 pay months away from becoming homeless ourselves. Addicts are blamed for their addictions without us knowing the full background of the individual. And despite us knowing that addiction is a disease, not a choice.
We view poor people as lazy and without ambition. They are deemed to have just as many chances to succeed in life but they chose not to study. We don’t even think about how money affects families and that many poorer children don’t have the opportunity to go to university because they are helping with household bills.

Where Does the Just-World Hypothesis Come from?

Melvin Lerner is a social psychologist and coined the term Just-World Theory or Hypothesis. He took the research of Stanley Milgram one step further. You’ll remember that Milgram conducted the now infamous ‘Obedience to Authority’ study. Lerner wanted to find out how people came to agree with cruel regimes that promoted suffering, and why they were willing to accept laws and norms in society that lead to a miserable outcome for many.
Lerner expanded Milgram’s’ experiments. In his study, he gave a woman electrical shocks for making mistakes on a memory task. The woman was his accomplice and no actual shocks were administered. However, two groups watched the woman. Some groups could help the woman whereas others could not.
Lerner found consistently that the group who could do something to alleviate the woman’s suffering were much more sympathetic to her ordeal. The group that could only watch had a far lower opinion of the woman.
“The sight of an innocent person suffering without the possibility of reward or compensation motivated people to devalue the attractiveness of the victim in order to bring about a more appropriate fit between her fate and her character.” Lerner et al.

Why Do We Believe in a Just World?

We have control over our lives

No one likes to hear about suffering around the world, or indeed in our own neighbourhood. So when we do come across something disturbing, it is easier to blame the victim for their fate. That way, we have control over what happens to us. We are not vulnerable in the same way that the victims are.
For example:
  • Walk through the park late at night and you’ll be assaulted.
  • Buy a house in that area and you’ll be flooded.
  • Wear that short shirt out and you’re asking to be raped.

It makes us feel safe

When there’s nothing we can do about a situation, we try and rationalise in our heads so it makes sense. In other words ‘There’s no such thing as an innocent victim’. By doing this, we reduce any anxiety we may have felt. We feel secure again because once we know that those victims ‘deserved’ what was coming to them we don’t need to feel fearful anymore.
After all, only bad things happen to bad people, right? And we are nothing like these bad people, so we are going to be ok. Moreover, we need the world to be a just and safe place. Because the alternative is just too scary for us to comprehend.
When we feel powerless to do something about a wrong, we turn to the next best thing and blame the victim. We want to think that things happen for a reason. It gives us a sense of control over the world.

Final Thoughts

We need to understand that life isn’t fair. However, this unfairness is foisted upon us for no apparent reason. It matters not whether you’re a good or bad person. There is no rhyme or reason for why bad things happen, but it does happen to all of us.
Unfortunately, there’s only so much you can do to avoid the unfair nature of life. But at least, we’re all in it together.
References:
  1. www.verywellmind.com
  2. www.theguardian.com

Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 22:58
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Segunda-feira, 27 de Abril de 2020

The Rare INTJ Female and Her Personality Traits

 

The Rare INTJ Female and Her Personality Traits

Janey Davies, B.A. (Hons)

https://www.learning-mind.com

April 27th, 2020.

 
 
 

 
Some Myers-Briggs personalities are so rare they deserve closer scrutiny. The INTJ female is one such example.
Making up just under 1% of the world’s population, notable INTJ females include Jane Austin, Susan Sontag, Lise Meitner, and Emily Jane Brontë, to name just a few. So what are the traits of the fascinating INTJ personality?

Traits of an INTJ Female

INTJ stands for Introverted, Intuition, Thinker, and Judgment.
  1. Introverted thinkers

Female INTJs are private individuals who do not act like ‘girly’ girls. They are not interested in being feminine. They don’t care if men notice them for their looks. Instead, they focus on competence and knowledge.
For INTJ women, knowledge is power. They use logic and reasoning over emotions and other people’s feelings. So long as the job is done and done well, it doesn’t bother them if they upset a few people along the way.
They will stand up to authority if they believe authority is wrong. They instinctively know the right way to do things and can get impatient when others need explanations.
  1. Esteem comes from within

INTJ females don’t need validation from other people to raise their self-esteem or confidence. They have an inbuilt sense of self from years of gathering knowledge and gaining qualifications. So it is this that forms her core being and INTJ personality. Not platitudes from friends or lovers.
However, she does enjoy being noticed for her intelligence and will quietly notch up wins in her mental notebook. If she is studying with others, she’ll have to get the best grades. Not to show off, but to prove to herself that she is the best.
  1. A close circle of loyal friends

A woman with the INTJ personality will have a few close friends that she’s known for years, decades probably. These friends know to give her space, and not to take offence at her dry comments. They know not to turn up uninvited and that the best gift to buy for her is a book on whatever she’s currently studying or interested in.
  1. Leads from the back

INTJ females are natural leaders, but not in an alpha-male kind of way. They steer from the back of the room, quietly but purposefully, guiding others to the same conclusions as theirs.
These women don’t care about the court of public opinion. In fact, they’re quite happy sticking their neck out in opposition to the view of the crowd, if they know they’re right. And, they always know they’re right.
  1. Confident and independent

The typical INTJ female is a confident and independent woman who doesn’t need a partner to make her whole. She’s perfectly happy to be on her own. Actually, she’d rather be alone than in a restricting relationship.
Growing up, the INTJ teenager will rebel against what she considers to be unfair and unjust. She’s used to being separate, an outsider if you will. In fact, she has known from an early age she is different.
You can easily spot an INTJ girl at school. When all the other pupils are working on their chosen projects of dogs, cats, or football, she’s engrossed in her electricity project.
  1. Hard exterior, soft centre

But scratch the surface and there’s a wonderful depth to her understanding. If an INTJ woman folds you into her inner circle, it’s likely you’ll never leave or need another friend again. However, you have to break through her tough, self-constructed barrier first. After all, it’s there to protect her fragile heart. Because once this woman falls in love, it’s forever.
So she sets herculean tests to potential suitors. Pass these tests and you will be allowed entry into her sacred inner circle. Those that fail were never her type in the first place.

3 Struggles of an INTJ Female

The INTJ female is a fascinating character. A contradiction, a paradox, a puzzle to be solved if you will. She’s set herself up this way to dispense with those timewasters. She’s full of quirks, qualities, and intriguing traits. But that’s not to say she doesn’t have her own personal struggles in life.
  • INTJ female at work

I’ve already established that this female doesn’t do well with authority. Especially if she sees incompetence or a better way to do things. A woman with the INTJ personality type is not afraid of calling out the top bosses for their faults. But she won’t understand why this does her no favours with fellow workers.
I mean, doesn’t everyone want the best solution to a problem? Does it matter who comes up with the idea so long as it works? This woman has no guile. She won’t play party politics and although she may get the result she wanted, she’ll be hurt by her colleague’s reactions to her.
The other problem a female INTJ will face is that because of her standoffish nature, people will think she is a snob. Her co-workers may think that she looks down on them. When in fact, the reverse is true. Anyone grafting an honest day’s work has her admiration. It’s laziness that appals her.
  • INTJ females and friends

Her friends will be few and far between, but she’ll have known them for decades. These friends will be fiercely defensive of her, and they’ll have to be because this female doesn’t take fools gladly.
An INTJ woman also has a dry, dark sense of humour. She delivers her punchlines with aplomb, with her sharp, cutting tongue. Once you get to know her, you get this dark humour. Remember, her humour is one way of weeding out timewasters.
Another point is that an INTJ will want nothing to do with the types who post selfies on social media. Or those who try and garner sympathy from others’ tragedies. She knows that to be a well-rounded person you need validation from the inside, and not other people’s opinions.
  • INTJ females and relationships

As I said earlier, this woman won’t settle just to be in a relationship. She’d much rather be on her own. A female INTJ may not want children either. Actually, you could say she doesn’t really have a maternal bone in her. But she does love animals. And she may have several pets that she adores.
Men would say this woman is a hard nut to crack. She’ll need a partner that she believes is superior to her. She likes a challenge and, therefore, she can’t date someone of lesser intelligence.

Final Thoughts

I would like to finish with a quote that perfectly sums up the INTJ female:
“And the princess lived happily ever after in her own big castle with all of her own money and she took care of herself. The End.”
Are you an INTJ? Do you relate to the description above? Please share your thoughts with us.
References:
  1. https://www.verywellmind.com
  2. https://www.ranker.com

Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 15:03
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Quinta-feira, 16 de Abril de 2020

Stockdale Paradox: How It Can Help You Survive the Worst

 

Stockdale Paradox: 

How It Can Help You Survive the Worst

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

April 16th, 2020.

 
 
 

 
Would you describe yourself as an optimist or a pessimist? Perhaps you’re more of an idealist? Maybe you think it’s important to see the reality of a situation? In any case, is it better to be one or the other? The Stockdale Paradox states that a mixture of realism and optimism is the best way forward.

What Is the Stockdale Paradox and Who Was James Stockdale?

The Stockdale paradox is named after the high-ranking naval officer Admiral James Stockdale. Stockdale fought in the Vietnam War and, unfortunately, was captured by the Viet Cong.
He was held prisoner from 1965 to 1973. During this time, he underwent some of the most brutal torture ever inflicted during a conflict; all whilst living in subhuman conditions. But Stockdale survived. Not because he was an unwavering optimist, or, indeed, a naïve idealist.
Stockdale lived to tell his horrific tale because he managed to deal with the realism of his appalling situation with a small measure of optimism.
Stockdale Paradox
US Navy Vice Admiral James Stockdale

Life in Prison During the Vietnam War

Out-matched by America’s great show of military strength, Vietnamese guards took a different tactic. They set about staging a propaganda war instead.
They captured thousands of US soldiers and brutalised many into ‘confessing’ the bombings of school children and homes of civilians. Guards filmed US prisoners denouncing the US government in humiliating videos.
So why did Jim Stockdale survive whereas others didn’t? In an interview, he said:
“I never lost faith in the end of the story. I never doubted not only that I would get out, but also that I would prevail in the end and turn the experience into the defining event of my life, which in retrospect, I would not trade.”
He was asked ‘Who didn’t survive?’
“Oh, that’s easy,” he said. “The optimists.”
The interviewer pressed Stockdale for more details.
“The optimists. Oh, they were the ones who said, ‘We’re going to be out by Christmas.’ And Christmas would come, and Christmas would go. Then they’d say, ‘We’re going to be out by Easter.’ And Easter would come, and Easter would go. And then Thanksgiving, and then it would be Christmas again. And they died of a broken heart.”

Stockdale’s Role as a POW in Vietnam

American POWs endured appalling conditions in the prison camps. Routinely shackled to beds by their legs with ironclads, these metal shackles were extremely tight and led to infections and sores. For days on end, prisoners were left to lie in their own faeces and urine.
Vietnam guards tortured Stockdale over twenty times. One form of torture was the rope trick. Prisoners would have their hands cuffed behind their backs, then guards would use ropes to rotate their arms up until their elbows and shoulders popped out of their sockets.
Guards would hang prisoners up for hours, days even. During this time prisoner’s arms would turn purple through lack of blood. Sometimes guard would hogtie a prisoner’s arms and legs together then string them up from a meat hook.
Returning at regulars intervals, guards would tighten the ropes until the prisoners had no feeling left in their limbs. Arms and legs would balloon to twice their normal size.
Remember, these were prisoners with infections and injuries from the war or previous torture. So they were already gravely ill before these hanging sessions. And torture sessions would go on for hours, in some cases even days.
One such inmate of a notorious POW camp, known as the Hanoi Hilton, is Congressman Sam Johnson. He described the torture in an interview:
“As a POW in the Hanoi Hilton, I could recall nothing from military survival training that explained the use of a meat hook suspended from the ceiling. It would hang above you in the torture room like a sadistic tease—you couldn’t drag your gaze from it.”
How do you survive such mental and physical torture with no end in sight?
How Stockdale Survived the POW Camps
Jim Stockdale knew that no one could survive endless torture, either physically or mentally. So he devised a step-by-step system of rules that would help. For instance, he advised prisoners to endure x number of minutes, then give away some information. This gave the prisoners a system to work from.
In fact, Stockdale was instrumental in organising his fellow inmates. He invented an elaborate communication system so that isolated prisoners could feel connected.
Slashing his body with a razor and beating himself bloody with a stool, Stockdale knew the guards would not videotape him as propaganda for the Vietnamese war effort. He taught prisoners a simple code of blinking Morse Code when they were videotaped for propaganda purposes. Now prisoners have a modicum of hope that their messages were getting out.
So where did Stockdale get his incredible resilience from? Was it his training in the Navy? Actually, Stockdale took inspiration from philosophy. He remembered quotes from the famed Stoic Epictetus:
“Men are disturbed not by things, but by the views which they take of things.”
“It’s not what happens to you, but how you react to it that matters.”

A Matter of Free Will

Stockdale realised that despite his capture and subsequent imprisonment, he still had the capacity for free will. Although he couldn’t change what was happening to him, he could control how he reacted to it all.
And that’s different from hoping things will turn out okay in the end. It is being proactive but also realistic about the situation. There are the factors you can control, for instance, your reaction to imprisonment and torture.
Then there are other factors you cannot control, such as liberation. Stockdale knew that to survive this horrific experience, he could not have ‘faith’ that things would turn out alright in the end. Because, dash this faith, time and time again, and there was no knowing if his mental state would ever recover from the sheer disappointment.
Instead, he confronted head-on the desperation and brutality of his situation and devised methods to deal with the worst of them.

So What Does Stockdale Paradox Teach Us?

So how does the Stockdale Paradox help us today? I’ll let Jim Stockdale answer that question:
“You have to have faith that you will prevail in the end, regardless of the difficultiesand at the same time, must confront the most brutal facts of your current reality, whatever they might be.”
In other words, a healthy dose of realism along with a measure of optimism is the best way through any difficult situation.
References:
  1. https://www.defense.gov
  2. https://www.usna.edu

Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 22:41
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Terça-feira, 14 de Abril de 2020

What Do Dreams about Stairs Mean?

What Do Dreams about Stairs Mean?

 5 Different Scenarios 

9 Possible Interpretations

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

April 13th, 2020.

 
 

 
Dreams about stairs are generally an indication of how you are proceeding through life. As with most dreams, going up is a sign of success, whereas going down signifies setbacks or failures.

Interpreting Dreams about Stairs

Of course, as with any attempt to interpret a dream, the dreamer must take into account the circumstances surrounding the stair dream.
For example, were you running up the stairs or limping? Did you fall down the stairs and could not get up again? Were you watching someone walk up the stairs? Did you know them or were they strangers?
When you try and analyse your dreams, concentrate on the main factor or feeling you experienced during dreaming. I say this because dreams are made up of many different elements and factors. And sometimes it’s easy to get lost in the smaller details.
So, think about when you first awoke from your stairs dream. What was the most over-riding feature that you remember?
There will be some feature or factor that immediately stands out to you. And that will be the most important detail to focus on. For instance, you may recall falling in your dream and only afterwards realise you’d fallen down the stairs. In this case, falling is the most important factor, not the actual stairs.
But remember, although it is important to focus on the main element of your dream, you should also look at the minor details as these will give you context.
Now let’s have a look at some of the most common dreams about stairs.

5 Most Common Dreams about Stairs

1. Going downstairs

Falling down

This is one of the most common dreams regarding stairs. You are falling down and end up at the bottom. As I’ve previously mentioned, going up indicates success and going down is the opposite.
Falling down the stairs in a dream is, therefore, an indication that you are not succeeding, or you think you’re not, in your present situation. Now, this could be a work or romantic situation. The main factor to look out for is how did you fall and how did you feel whilst you were falling.
For instance, some people feel utterly helpless when they’re falling, whereas others can have some sort of control over their fall. So did you fall quickly and with no time to steady yourself? Or was the fall slower, thus allowing you to manage to hold onto a bannister and decelerate the speed of falling?
If you fell quickly and could not prevent yourself from crashing at the bottom of the stairs, this suggests you feel helpless in your current situation. You can’t see how you can control it or stop it escalating.
However, if you were able to grab hold of something to halt your fall, this means you do have some control and influence over the situation. In fact, you may have more weight and authority than you initially anticipated.
If you tripped down the stairs, this indicates a low confidence issue. You may suffer from poor self-esteem or a lack of self-confidence.

Walking downstairs

Going up and downstairs is also associated with spirituality. In fact, it’s frequently used by hypnotists to induce a sense of relaxation. Therapists may use a set of stairs and then ask a patient to count down from 5 to 1. This simulates regressing into our subconscious mind.
So we have to assume that a dream about stairs is our subconscious mind trying to tell us something important that we’ve locked away. If this is the case, then what we see at the bottom of the stairs in our dream is of utmost importance.
The great dream analyser Sigmund Freud would state that a small child at the bottom of the stairs is you, the dreamer. In this case, the subconscious mind is trying to get the adult to remember childhood trauma in order to overcome it.
If the dreamer sees an older person at the bottom, this is your wiser self. It suggests that you have the power within yourself to move forward from the troubling situation you’re currently experiencing.

2. Going up the stairs

There are several different ways we can go up the stairs; we can walk slowly, holding onto the bannisters, or we can run two steps at a time.
Consider the manner in which you were climbing the stairs in your dream. Going up slowly and carefully indicates a gradual and perhaps lengthy progression in your current situation.
For example, if you are applying for a promotion at work, this dream about going up the stairs shows that you will reach the top, but in a measured fashion.
Conversely, running up the stairs suggests a quick result or resolution to a particular problem. Remember, up = good, down = bad. And the faster the better, the slower the poorer.
However, there’s one additional factor to look out for, especially if you relate your stairs dream to work, and you’re racing up the stairs. This dream is warning you not to rush to the peak as you might miss out on something good along the way.
It’s all very well racing to your goals in life, but you could lose sight of what’s really important, perhaps your relationships or your family life.
Walking or running up the stairs
Walking or running up the stairs in a dream can have several meanings. If you are rapidly running up the stairs, you might be on the fast track to your goals. Or, you might be leaping too quickly and missing out on something important in your waking life.
If you struggle to get up the stairs, you will have to endure hard work to achieve your goals. You may well experience setbacks, either emotionally, physically or financially. Struggling up the stairs also suggests that a current situation is getting worse. You are finding it more and more difficult to carry on.
However, if you see yourself climbing up the stairs in a measured fashion, it can also indicate you are on your own path to spiritual awareness.
I’ve already talked about how going down the stairs can indicate a message from your subconscious mind. Similarly, going upstairs implies reaching spiritual enlightenment. That you are becoming a progressive and open-minded soul.

3. Stuck in the middle of the stairs

dreams about stairs
This is pretty obvious and quite symbolic of your current situation and how you feel about it. It denotes an area in your life where you might feel stuck with no hope or answers as to how you can move forward. This area can be literally anything; from relationships, work, financial problems or health issues.
It can also indicate a hesitation on your part to make a decision regarding something important. You feel stymied, between a rock and a hard place. It seems that whatever decision you make no one comes out the better for it.
What this means is that there’s no easy way to resolve this situation and perhaps you could do with a second opinion, or, at least, some support. Don’t feel as if you have to take on the troubles of the world and then solve them all. You can’t.

4. Walking on moving stairs

Escalators are part of everyday life, and as such, can represent different factors in our lives when we dream about them. To jump onto a moving escalator shows that we are confident in our abilities to get the job done. We are on the right path and are excited about the opportunities it offers.
To walk in the opposite direction on a moving escalator indicates our worry that we’ve made a terrible mistake. We literally want to stop the world and get off.

5. Spiral staircase

Dreaming about walking up or down on a spiral staircase is all about a confusing time in your life. In this dream, it doesn’t really matter whether you were going up or down. The dream is an indication of puzzling times ahead.
You don’t know whether you are coming or going, whether you are going up or down. Take stock of your situation for a moment. Leave it alone for a few days then come back to it. You’ll see the solution much more clearly.
Final thoughts
Dreams about stairs are more common than you think. But all of them hold an important message about our lives. Understanding this message is the key to moving forward.
References:
  1. www.psychologytoday.com
  2. dreams.ucsc.edu

Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2020 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

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publicado por achama às 01:05
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Quinta-feira, 2 de Abril de 2020

Hindsight Bias: Why We Overestimate Our Ability to Predict Events.

Hindsight Bias: 

Why We Overestimate Our Ability to Predict Events.

Janey Davies, B.A.

https://www.learning-mind.com

April 1st, 2020.

 
 

 
They say hindsight is a wonderful thing, but don’t you just hate it when people say things like ‘I told you that would happen’ or ‘I just knew it all along’? Are they particularly gifted in their ability to see into the future or predict the past? I’m afraid not. They are more likely to suffer from something called hindsight bias.

What Is Hindsight Bias?

Simply put, it is a psychological phenomenon that explains why people overestimate their ability to predict an outcome they had no chance of predicting.
In hindsight bias, we either revise the probabilities after the event, or we exaggerate the extent to which an event could have been predicted.
In other words, people overestimate how predictable an event is and subsequently believe they predicted it before it happened. When an event or experience is occurring we can guess to the possible outcomes. However, there’s no way we can possibly predict what is going to happen.
We might get a gut feeling or hope for a particular result, but there’s no way of really knowing.

Examples of a Hindsight Bias

  • Your football wins the World Cup trophy and you knew all along they would win.
  • The political party you voted for in the last election loses drastically and you were convinced they would lose.
  • Your favourite soap actor gets killed off in a recent episode and you remember thinking it would happen.
  • The weather forecast has a 10% chance of rain, but it does. You told everyone it was going to rain.

But Why Do We Fall into This Cognitive Trap?

Research in 2012 from psychological scientists Roese and Vohs from the University of Minnesota suggests there are three cognitive factors that contribute to hindsight bias.
  1. Memory Distortion

‘I said that would happen.’
We distort or misremember the event and our predictions at that particular time. When we look back we think we knew the outcome all along.
  1. Inevitability

‘It had to happen.’
We believe the event was inevitable and that it would happen. When assessing something that has occurred, we assume it was bound to happen.
  1. Foreseeability

‘I knew it would happen.’
We assume that we could have foreseen the outcome of the event.
It is when the above three factors occur together that you are likely to see the hindsight bias.
The Cognitive Processing That Leads to Hindsight Bias
So what is actually going on in our minds when we fall for the hindsight bias? Let’s examine each one of the three cognitive factors:

Memory

When we look back at an event, our minds subconsciously cherry-pick the information we know to be true. We then create a whole new narrative that is different from the actual event, thus allowing us to remember it the way we want to.

Inevitability

Now we have processed the event with our cherry-picked bits of information we have our story that backs up our prediction. Now the narrative is simple to understand it is much easier for us to see the outcome.

Foreseeability

So we have doctored our memories to make sense of the event. This allows us closure. Once again, we have made sense of the chaos of ordinary life. Balance is restored and the world is ordered again.
As a result, ultimately, hindsight bias makes us feel good about ourselves and the world around us. We feel safe in our own knowledge. Our judgement was right. We predicted what was going to happen and it did happen.
The world is back to normal again. But there are problems with this cognitive bias.
“If you feel like you knew it all along, it means you won’t stop to examine why something really happened,” says Roese. “It’s often hard to convince seasoned decision-makers that they might fall prey to hindsight bias.”
Hindsight bias can also fool us into thinking we know more than we do. We can become over-confident in our own abilities and judgments on the world.
When we think ‘we knew it all along’, we don’t stop to ask pertinent questions. It can stop us from examining additional evidence. We’ve already predicted the outcome. Why do we need further investigation?
The problem with hindsight bias is that it can lead to poor decision-making, over-reliance on past results and simplifying outcomes.
As with all biases, these are the mental shortcuts we take every day to make sense of the world. But these shortcuts in our thinking can have dire consequences. Including, as Vohl’s states:
“A myopic attention to a single causal understanding of the past (to the neglect of other reasonable explanations) as well as general overconfidence in the certainty of one’s judgements”.

When Is Hindsight Bias Dangerous?

People can follow the same path as before because they believe they already know the outcome. For example, in the business world, it can be difficult to know what exactly makes a successful enterprise. Investors will fund similar markets because they made money before.
CEOs will back a certain product because its predecessor did well and made a profit. In addition, judges in the courtroom can come up against the same defendant and assume they will follow a particular criminal path as before.
In all of the above examples, no one is examining the situation before them at that present moment. They are basing their decision on past events. The trouble with doing this is that they are misremembering what happened. So the information they are using to make future decisions is tarnished.

How to Avoid Hindsight Bias

There are ways you can avoid this type of bias.
Start from scratch – When you come up against a situation you have encountered before, analyse from the beginning. Don’t use past events to influence you.
Get constant feedback – Studies show that those who receive continual feedback on their work are less likely to fall for hindsight bias.
Use all the information you have – This is known as Bayesian Thinking after the 18-century English statistician Thomas Bayes. His idea was that all information is relevant, but some information has more value. Your job is to weigh up what is important and what is not.
You do not have a crystal ball – Make decisions on the actual data in front of you. Not what you think might happen. Whatever the evidence says pay attention to it. Not your gut feelings.

Final thoughts

We all like to think we are special and have amazing talents. The truth is we are just ordinary people trying to make sense of the world.
 
References:
  1. www.investopedia.com
  2. www.verywellmind.com


Janey Davies



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 02:49
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Quarta-feira, 5 de Fevereiro de 2020

Cyberstalking: Examples, Tactics and How to Protect Yourself Online

Cyberstalking: Examples, Tactics and How to Protect Yourself Online

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

February 4th, 2020.

 
cyberstalking.
 

 
Stalking in any form is insidious and menacing. However, cyberstalking takes this kind of threatening behaviour to frightening new levels.
 
The internet has evolved to become the place in which we communicate effectively and quickly. For the vast majority of us, it is a safe and pleasant place to inhibit. But for others, it can cause untold terror and misery. So what exactly is cyberstalking?
 
What Is Cyberstalking?
 
It is any kind of unwanted attention, such as harassment or abuse, which takes place online. This can be via email, text messages, social media, even GPS tracking devices. It is basically stalking in the cyberworld.
 
This type of abuse can be directed at an individual, group or business. It tends to be prolonged, intimidating, and sustained over a long period of time. The problem with this type of stalking is that you cannot escape from it. It follows you everywhere. We all have smartphones, access to the internet. And we can’t just switch off.
 
Examples of Cyberstalking
  • Hacking into a person’s social media account to find personal information.
  • Creating a fake social media account to keep in touch with an ex-partner.
  • Sending hundreds of unwanted text messages or emails.
  • Posting explicit pictures of an ex-partner online.
  • Threatening to post nude pictures of an ex-partner online or to friends and family.
  • Hacking the person’s social media account and posting rude messages as that person.
  • Using your social media account to post malicious rumours about a person.
  • Sending spiteful or discrediting emails to a victim’s place of work to damage their reputation.
  • Hacking into a victim’s computer looking for explicit material to exploit to family and work.
 
Unfortunately, modern technology has made it extremely easy for stalkers to progress to online stalking. The other problem is that, particularly in view of identity fraud, many people lay their lives wide open on social media. Some people think nothing of posting the most intimate details of their lives online for the whole world to see.
 
For example, when we go away on holiday, we take steps to ensure our mail is not piling up when strangers can easily see it. We stop milk deliveries. In addition, we set up lights to come on and off at certain times of the day and night. However, we think nothing of posting holiday pictures on Instagram while we are away.
 
So we have seen examples of cyberstalking, but what tactics do cyberstalkers use to harass their victims?
 
Tactics a Cyberstalker Will Use
 
Social engineering
 
This is a method of manipulation. The cyberstalker will trick the victim into giving up private information. Also known as phishing; this could be by means of planting a virus via email. Another method is cold calling and asking for the victim’s date of birth, etc.
 
Bad acting
 
Here the cyberstalker will impersonate someone the victim already knows. Or they will create a fake identity to befriend the victim or the victim’s family. The reason to do this is to exhort money, embarrass, harass or distance the victim from friends and family.
 
Doxing
 
Many cyberstalkers will take advantage of the mass of intelligence you can glean online. There are various sources, including Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). This is known as Doxing. As such, there is a mine of readily available public records, databases and search engines for anyone to find online.
 
Skilled Hackers
 
The cyberstalker can use a skilled hacker or learn the techniques themselves. Skilled hackers have a multitude of means to gain access to your devices. One simple way is to plant a GPS tracker in your car. This then pings a message to your phone whenever it moves. In actual fact, more skilled hackers can access your computer’s webcam and microphone. As a result, they’ll then monitor your movements and conversations.
 
Likewise, smartphones are hacked in the same way. The cyberstalker can not only track where your phone is but also clone it. In addition, they can also spoof a phone that is known to you and use it to extract information.
 
Examples of Victims
 
Reasons for cyberstalking can vary depending on the perpetrator. A jealous partner can cyberstalk their ex to intimidate them into returning to the relationship. Or to stop them from moving on with their lives.
 
Jealous ex-partners
 
One woman living in Glendale, California had noticed she kept accidentally ‘bumping’ into her ex-boyfriend in the most unexpected places. These places ranged from coffee shops, the airport, even the cemetery. She was suspicious and then saw him underneath her car early one morning. He had planted a GPS tracking device in her car which sent signals to his phone. This allowed him to track her every move. When she spotted him, he was in the process of changing the battery.
 
A second woman was murdered after her stalker was able to find her by using online technology. The man paid an online investigations firm just $154 to find out this woman’s place of work. He went there and shot her. No one at the agency asked why he wanted the information.
 
Another woman went to the police after several men began contacting her from a local dating site. All the men were looking for casual hookups. All of her personal information was readily available on the online dating site.
 
Identity fraud
 
When we think about identity fraud, we automatically assume it is all about money. That the fraudsters want to gather information about their victims in order to scam them into parting with savings. Of course, in many cases, this is true. However, some identity fraud cases are much more complicated.
 
A journalist writing for Wired.com recounts how her stalker turned to the internet after repeated attempts failed to connect them in the real world. This cyberstalker spoofed her email accounts.
 
This allowed him to impersonate her online. He sent her hundreds of texts, called her relentlessly, all without her responding. She blocked him on all her social media. However, he ramped up the stalking by attacking her professional career. The police were unable to help as it was not deemed to be a serious threat to her life.
 
So are there any statistics on the victims of cyberstalking?
 
Statistics on Cyberstalking
 
As cyberstalking is a relatively new crime, statistics are rare and not easy to come by. But a national advocacy group has found the following:
  • 50% of all victims were ex-partners of the stalker
  • More than 50% of cyberstalkers are male
  • The majority of victims are Caucasian
  • Most of the victims are aged between 18 and 29 years old
  • Over 30% of cyberstalking starts on social media
How to Protect Yourself Against Cyberstalking
 
  1. Thankfully, cyberstalking is now regarded as a serious crime. So if you think you are being stalked online, go to the police and report it. In the meantime, here are some tips and guidelines to protect yourself now and in the future.
  2. Use good security protection software to prevent infections from viruses or attacks from infected websites.
  3. Never allow someone physical access to your computer or smartphone.
  4. Create strong passwords for each and every one of your accounts and change them on a regular basis. Don’t share them with anyone. Moreover, don’t use pet names or names that are easily guessable from your social media profiles.
  5. Log out from your computer programs every time you step away from the screen on your PC, laptop and smartphone. Don’t just close the page down.
  6. Use the privacy settings on your social media account properly. This ensures that no one knows your date of birth, where you live, your email address or your phone number.
  7. Don’t tag photographs with your location. Hackers can tell a lot more than just the location from the metadata attached to the picture.
  8. Try Googling yourself using different name combinations to see what information is readily available. If you find that sensitive information is online, contact the website and have it removed.
  9. If a relationship ends, change the passwords on everything you have online. This includes social media accounts and bank accounts.
  10. Don’t be provocative with people you don’t know online. For instance, you wouldn’t go into a pub and start an argument with strangers. Don’t assume it is safe to do so online.
Final thoughts
 
A lot of advice regarding cyberstalking is common-sense. Use the same safety measures in real life that you would online. For more complicated cases, get the police involved.

References:

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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A Trusty with Privacy Search 
Alternative to Google
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Alternatives to YouTube
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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
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publicado por achama às 02:34
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Quinta-feira, 30 de Janeiro de 2020

Schizotypal Personality Disorder Symptoms and How to Spot Them

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

January 29th, 2020.

 
schizotypal personality disorder symptoms.
 
 
 
We all have our little idiosyncrasies. However, when somebody starts to withdraw from society, speak, think, act and dress in an odd way, it is possible they are showing the symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder.
 
Before we start, it is worth mentioning that schizotypal personality disorder may share similar symptoms to other disorders. For example, schizophrenia and schizoid personality disorder. However, they are not the same. So how do you characterise the signs of this disorder?
 
Three Main Schizotypal Personality Disorder Symptoms
 
The symptoms can be broken down into three main groups:
  1. A limited capacity to form and maintain close relationships
  2. A distorted way of perceiving or thinking about events
  3. Exhibiting off-putting eccentric behaviour
 
However, to be diagnosed as having a schizotypal personality disorder, you have to suffer from at least 5 of the following symptoms:
  • Problems maintaining relationships outside of the family
  • Lives a hermit or loner lifestyle
  • Detached, isolated from society
  • Suffers from persistent social anxiety that does not decrease with familiarity
  • Social anxiety is connected to paranoia
  • Flat affect or emotions or inappropriate emotional reaction
  • Odd speech style, i.e. rambling incoherently, unusual way of talking
  • Off-putting odd and eccentric behaviour, beliefs, mannerisms or thinking
  • Dresses in a peculiar way, wearing outlandish, ill-matched or unkempt clothes
  • Misinterprets events, believes something that is meaningless has a direct impact on them
  • Paranoid and suspicious about those around them, questions loyalty
  • Magical thinking, superstitious, has a belief in clairvoyance and telepathy and the paranormal
  • Allows these beliefs to influence their thinking and judgment
  • Feels that they can influence events (ideas of reference)
  • An odd thinking style, for example, stereotypical, black and white thinking, vague, over-elaborates, metaphorical or circumstantial
  • Believes they can sense an absent person’s presence
 
These Symptoms in More Detail
 
Inability to form relationships
 
The major problem someone with this disorder faces is an inability to form close relationships. However, it is not surprising that the schizotypal person has problems with relationships. Consider the other presenting factors in this disorder.
 
For example, the odd speech and thinking, misinterpreting events and dressing in an eccentric manner. These all contribute to problems forming relationships. But are their problems due to theirdiscomfort managing these symptoms or the discomfort of others around them? Experts are not sure. I suspect it is a combination of the two.
 
Social Isolation
 
What experts do know is that a person suffering from schizotypal personality disorder feels anxious in social situations. It is likely, therefore, that alongside all the other social and personal deficits, they prefer their own company. This leads to a hermit or loner lifestyle.
 
As a result, this has a knock-on effect on relationships. They feel uncomfortable in social situations. Of course, this doesn’t help with forming close relationships. However, the main reason for this anxiety is paranoia and suspicion regarding other people’s behaviour towards them. Not the fact they feel shy and awkward in social situations.
 
Odd behaviour
 
There are many symptoms of odd behaviour that show up in schizotypal personality disorder. For example, a flat affect in speech is common. Others around them will think they are cold and aloofbecause of this.
 
Likewise, speaking inappropriately or showing the wrong emotion at the wrong time. A little like giggling at a funeral. The way they speak is also odd. They might use a lot of metaphors to converse, speak with a lot of useless nonsense or ramble on with too much detail.
 
Their dress will be mismatched or outlandish. They’ll think nothing of wearing pyjamas to the theatre or a ball gown to the supermarket. They might be dishevelled or dirty. They won’t care about personal hygiene, preferring to spend their time researching the important things like alien invasions and the end of the world.
 
Ideas of reference
 
People with a schizotypal personality disorder will often believe that meaningless events hold great significance, especially for them. It is as if they are being given clues and signs to interpret and only they can solve them. This is similar to ‘magical thinking’ where people believe that their thoughts, ideas, wishes or actions have the power to influence outside events.
 
I remember working in an office years ago and a guy I had worked only a few times with came up to me and asked if I had left an elastic band on his desk. I didn’t understand the question. He said the band was in the shape of a love heart and that he understood what I was trying to tell him.
 
Superstitious
 
Superstition is another symptom of schizotypal personality, alongside a preoccupation with the paranormal. People who suffer from this disorder are obsessed with clairvoyants, magic, numbers, the universe, and the unknown; anything that cannot be easily explained.
 
They may also hold odd beliefs; ones that do not conform to societal rules. But they won’t care what others think.
Odd thinking style
 
People with this disorder think differently to us. They might use black and white thinking, or perceive time and space in different terms (perpetual aberration). They also suffer from a concentration on physical symptoms, such as pain or fatigue (somatic symptoms), which then causes them great emotional distress.
 
They are often paranoid and believe in conspiracy theories, particularly relating outlandish tales about themselves. For example, they might suppose that an innocent phone call by a relative is talking about them to the CIA.
 
Who Is Likely to Suffer from Schizotypal Personality Disorder?
 
Just under 4% of the world’s population suffers from this disorder. There is a slightly higher occurrence in men (4.2%) than women (3.7%). You are more likely to suffer from this disorder if you are a black woman, have a low income, are divorced, separated or widowed.
 
With adjustments made for variables, the schizotypal disorder is shown to be significantly associated with other disorders. This includes narcissistic personality disorder, bipolar disorder and PTSD. Conversely, there are lower occurrences in Asian men.
 
What Are the Causes of This Disorder?
 
Experts believe a combination of factors contributes to a cause of this disorder:
  • Biology
  • Genetics
  • Environment
  • Biology
 
Research shows that mothers exposed to influenza during their 6th-month gestation pregnancy term have higher associations with schizotypal traits in males.
 
Genetics
 
Early studies show that diagnoses of this disorder are higher when some form of schizo-disorder runs in the family.
 
Environment
 
Episodes of stress, psychological trauma or acute anxiety lead to higher incidences of people suffering from this disorder.
 
Diagnosing and Treating Schizotypal Personality Disorder
 
There are no blood or genetic tests that can diagnose this disorder. In fact, someone who has several of the symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder should seek a proper diagnosis from a trained mental health practitioner. Psychologists and psychiatrists have the expertise to diagnose this rather tricky mental health disorder.
 
The problem with treating this kind of disorder is that usually, the person suffering from it does not seek treatment themselves. Therefore, it is up to the family or friends of the sufferer to help the person get treatment.
 
Treatment of schizotypal personality disorder can be a combination of psychotherapy to understand what is happening and medication to calm the symptoms. For severe cases, treatment may not be effective. Therefore, the only way forward is to assist people suffering to live a satisfying and productive life on their own.
 
Final Thoughts
 
Decades ago, anyone who appeared different would be locked up regardless of what was wrong with them. Nowadays, we are learning more and more about the human brain and mental disorders. This is allowing experts to help those who are suffering to improve their living standards, which can only be a step in the right direction for everyone.
 
References:

  1. www.mayoclinic.org
  2. pdfs.semanticscholar.org
  3. www.health.harvard.edu
  4. www.webmd.com

 

 
Janey Davies

 





About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



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No religious or political creed is advocated here.

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publicado por achama às 01:50
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Terça-feira, 19 de Novembro de 2019

How Symbols and Meanings Affect Our Perception in the Modern World

Janey Davies.

https://www.learning-mind.com

November 18th, 2019.

 
symbols and meanings.
 
 

 
Do you get hungry when you see the golden arches of McDonald’s? Are you proud when you think about your National flag? You might not think these two things are connected, but they are. They are both symbols, and although they have very different meanings, they demonstrate how they affect our perception.

Symbols and Meanings
 
“A symbol is not just an image, but is like a door into the inner world of the soul.” Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee
Why We Have Symbols
 
Our brains have to process an enormous amount of data every second of our lives. Symbols help us to make sense of our surroundings. This is because they are a way of instantly communicating. They provide a mental shortcut that triggers recognition, understanding and feeling.
 
Symbols can take on many different forms. For example, a letter, as with the McDonalds’ example, or a simple cross to denote a religious building. Symbols include signs, gestures, objects, signals and even words. We have symbols because they have the ability to reach across a diverse range of races and cultures.
 
Not matter what language you speak, everyone knows what the Apple logo, the red poppy or the Swastika stand for. And with the increase in the use of emoji’s, we are going to use symbols even more to give us meaning.

Symbols Are Used For Communication
 
Our world is rife with symbols. Just think about it. Company logos, traffic signs, the male and female signs on toilet doors, these are all symbols and they all convey different meanings.
 
But symbols are more than just information. Think about the authority behind a policeman’s badge. The instruction your brain receives when it see a Stop Sign. The colour red, the colour green. A gold ring on your third finger. A Nazi Swastika. Symbols can have emotional meanings as well as being informative.

Symbols Have Emotional Meanings
 
Symbols represent ideologies such as religion and political concepts. As such, they are intrinsically linked with our emotions. In the US, the national flag is a revered symbol to be respected and honoured. In the UK, we don’t place so much importance on our flag. So you could argue that symbols have different meanings to whoever is reacting to it.
 
For example, to many Germans, the Nazi Swastika was a symbol of racial purity and German power. To the Jewish population, it instilled fear. Yet, some groups are now adopting this symbol to front their cultural agendas.
 
 
It is the same with religious symbols. The cross is sacred to Christians. However, a burning cross at night is not religious at all. Therefore, each symbol is loaded with meaning, dependant on the person viewing it. The person will associate that particular symbol with a certain feeling or emotion.
 
Symbols Unite Us As Groups
 
But symbols can also unite us into groups. The symbol will then serve as a link for members to express their identity, all without saying a word. The symbols we wear on our lapels, our uniforms or our flags reveal a common way of thinking. We instantly align ourselves by adopting certain symbols. These symbols connect us in a way that words never can.
 
So, in this context, the meanings behind the symbols we use are to show our identity within a certain group. By adopting one symbol over another, we are literally pinning our character to a flag for all to see. We are saying that we identify with others who adopt this symbol.

Why Are Symbols Powerful?
 
You only have to look at the world of sports to appreciate the power of symbols. Take Roger Federer. To many people, Roger is the epitome of someone at the very top of their craft. It’s not surprising then that sports brands fight to the death to sponsor him. Nike had that contract for years.
 
Now just think about that single Nike tick. What it represents to people. When you go to a sports shop and you have to choose between two pairs of trainers, you see the Nike pair with a tick. In your subconscious mind, that is no ordinary tick. That tick represents Roger Federer. His class, his wins, and his triumphs in the face of defeat.
 
It is a symbol loaded with meaning. That tick is a sign of a true sportsman, on and off the court. When you reach for the Nike trainers, for an instant, you are in that special Federer club. You are luxuriating in his success. But it’s just a tick, remember?
 
So, symbols instantly bring up a certain feeling or image or association. As such, they are often used in the media or for propaganda. Symbols have the power to unite or divide us.
 
Many of us added a French flag filter to our social media profile picture after the shootings in a Paris nightclub. Taiwanese students used sunflowers to protest against a secret controversial deal with China. Protests are banned in Thailand. However, students have begun using the three-fingered salute seen in the Hunger Games as a form of silent protest.
 
Even political parties adopt symbols. There is the red rose for Labour, a flying dove for the Libdems, the pound sign for UKIP. This is so that people who cannot read or write can easily vote for their party.
 
Symbols are everywhere. We cannot avoid them.

Final Thoughts on Symbols and Meanings
 
There’s no doubt of the power of symbols and what their meanings represent. They have an instant effect on us. We need to understand this. Then we can step back before we react and think about symbols and how their meanings really affect us.
 
References:
 

Janey Davies

 



About the Author: Janey Davies.
Janey Davies has been published online for over 8 years. She is the head writer for Shoppersbase.com, she also writes for AvecAgnes.co.uk, Ewawigs.com and has contributed to inside3DP.com. She has an Honours Degree in Psychology and her passions include learning about the mind, popular science and politics. When she is relaxing she likes to walk her dog, read science fiction and listen to Muse.
 
 
COPYRIGHT © 2019 LEARNING MIND. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FOR PERMISSION TO REPRINT, CONTACT US.
 
 
 



Compiled by http://violetflame.biz.ly from: 

Archives:



No religious or political creed is advocated here.

Organised religion is unnecessary to spirituality.

Excellent teachings of the masters have been contaminated by the dogmatic control of these religions.

Discernment yes; judgement does not.
If you use discernment you are free to research with an open mind. 

With discernment it is possible to reach the spirit of the letter of any writing and it is also much easier to listen to the voice of the soul that comes from the heart.
Individually you can be helped to find your Truth that is different of everyone. 


Please respect all credits.

 
Discernment is recommended.
 

All articles are of the respective authors and/or publishers responsibility. 




 

Like this! please bookmark. It is updated daily

 


 
 
 
Free counters!

  geoglobe1
 

 

 
publicado por achama às 03:41
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